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ROCK ART RANCH TAKES VISITORS BACK IN TIME ! EXPERTS MARVEL AT “BIRTHING SCENE” A GLIMPSE OF SOUTH WEST PREHISTORIC LIFE ON PECOS 2013 TOUR

THE PECOS CONFERENCE IS HELD EACH AUGUST ALLOWING SOUTH WEST ARCHAEOLOGIST TO MEET, DRINK BEER, VISIT IN THE SHADE OF A PINE TREE WHILE DISCUSSING THE SEASON’S FINDS AND CONCLUSIONS. THE FIRST TWO DAYS FOLKS MEET BENEATH BIG TENTS AND LISTEN TO 10 MINUTE REPORTS, ON SUNDAY FOLKS BREAK CAMP AND HEAD OUT ON THEIR CHOSEN FIELD TRIP FROM A DOZEN TO CHOOSE FROM THIS CHEVELON CANYON TOUR FILLED UP FAST….MORE 2013 PECOS NOTES BELOW…

ROCKARTRANCH PHOTOS2To some, the land seen off I-40 just south of Winslow, Arizona, is featureless and seemingly without end. Others, more adventuresome, might find the finger-like canyons of precious water that collect on these lands and have supported life there for centuries. Those who stop and look closely might enjoy the language of prehistoric man left on the walls of Chevelon Canyon. Surprisingly, rock artists seven thousand years ago wrote about the same human conditions that preoccupy our lives today….life, death, birth and putting food on the table. CHEVELON CANYON

VERY SIMILAR TO ROCK ART FOUND ALONG THE SAN JUAN RIVER IN UTAH

VERY SIMILAR TO ROCK ART FOUND ALONG THE SAN JUAN RIVER IN UTAH

DATURA OR JIMSONWEED IS FOUND GROWING IN THE CANYON AND MIGHT HAVE LEAD TO A BAD DREAM OR TWO

DATURA OR JIMSONWEED IS FOUND GROWING IN THE CANYON AND MIGHT HAVE LEAD TO A BAD DREAM OR TWO

ROCKARTRANCH BIRTHMan’s need for spirituality is found in the two foot tall human-shaped figures who resembled the shamanistic drawing found in the San Juan River valley. Perhaps the most famous rock drawing found here is the “Birthing scene” which shows a unmarried pueblo women (wearing Hopi hair whorls) giving birth. Some of the paint of this design has been scrapped away over the centuries by women hoping to become pregnant, either by carrying the powder in a medicine bag or ingesting it in order to successfully conceive. For thousands of years these rock designs were the religious center of between 200-400 people living in the area who up to 1400 AD depended upon this canyon for their livelihood and probably their spiritual life also.
IS THIS A MAN WITH A MACHETE HOLDING A HEAD OR IS IT A PAINTER WITH A BRUSH AND PAINT ?

IS THIS A MAN WITH A MACHETE HOLDING A HEAD OR IS IT A PAINTER WITH A BRUSH AND PAINT ?

ROCKARTRANCH LOOKOUT2
CHUCK ADAMS EXPLAINS LIFE IN CHEVELON CANYON

CHUCK ADAMS EXPLAINS LIFE IN CHEVELON CANYON

Today Rock Art Ranch is a private ranch 25 miles southeast of Winslow, AZ, it still raises cattle and bison and encompasses 5,000 acres between Winslow and Holbrook. Rock Art Ranch is home to one of the best preserved and most extensive collections of ancient petroglyphs in the southwest. The spectacular rock art dates from 6000 BC to AD 1400 and lies in the deep lush canyons found in the high desert around 5100’ elevation. For thousands of years this area has been visited by hunting nomads and gathering groups. Charles Adams is a Professor in the School of Anthropology and Curator of Archaeology in the Arizona State Museum, both at the University of Arizona. Chuck directs a field school here each summer and is the overall principal investigator in Chevelon Canyon. Adams along with Richard Lange have conducted survey and excavations in this area through the ASM Homol’ovi Research Program, their research interests include proto-historic and historic Pueblo archaeology, Hopi ethnography, religion and ritual in the archaeological record, settlement patterns and land use. In 2013, the UA field school focused on describing the archaeological record of the ranch and its neighbors and conducted a limited excavation on an early 13th century pueblo of 30-50 rooms. They wanted to gain an understanding of how the landscape was used by groups over the past 8000 years, and why groups migrated to and from this area, and if this rock art communicated identity and ownership.

Visiting Homolovi Ruins (just north of Winslow, AZ) some folks hear of the Winslow ranching family who managed to keep a significant cluster of petroglyphs protected from vandalism for more than 50 years. Brantley Baird is a descendent who created “Rock Art Ranch AZ” and for a fee, the Baird’s will guide folks to the 3000+ rock art images located on the canyon walls. Some archaeologist have declared Rock Art Ranch as; “One of the premier rock art sites in the world” saying the significance of this site is amplified by rock art samples spanning 6000 years produced by Anasazi, Sinagua, Hopi, Navajo, and the Zuni cultures. Please note also this hike is on private property and arrangements must be made in advance with the Baird family prior to visiting Rock Art Ranch. Contact the Baird’s at 928-288-3260 to make your arrangements, and be sure to visit their museum setup, displaying a lifetime of discoveries. The ranch, which Baird’s parents purchased in 1945, features a barn stocked with artifacts found on the property as well as those passed down through the family, which has deep Arizona roots. Baird’s great-grandfather was William Jordan Flake, a co-founder of the town of Snowflake. Anasazi ruins and a Navajo hogan and sweat house are all part of the ranch.

Call 928-288-3260 and for a fee and the date, time can be arranged. You will be met by a ranch hand at the corner of Territorial Road and Bell Cow Road at 10 am on any Saturday. Be prepared to follow his truck along a rutted ranch road for a couple of miles. You will pass through a couple of locked gates along the ranch road until reaching a parking area next to Chevelon Canyon. As long as you are with Baird or his people, ignore all those threatening signs overhead, the tour is well worth the risks…

Called the Hunting Scene shows a number of antlered elk or deer and possible game for the residents of Chevelon Canyon.

The Hunting Scene show antlered elk or deer and which was possible game for the residents of Chevelon Canyon.

LONG TIME ESCAPE FROM THE HEAT OF SUMMER. A SWIMMING AS POPULAR AS TIME IS OLD.

LONG TIME ESCAPE FROM THE HEAT OF SUMMER. A SWIMMING HOLE AS POPULAR AS TIME IS OLD.

ROCKARTRANCHCHEVELONCANYON

From Winslow: Take SR87 south towards Payson. Turn left on SR99 and follow about 6 1/4 miles until you reach Territorial Road (McLaws Road on many maps). Follow the gravel surfaced Territorial Road for about 8 1/2 miles until you reach intersection of Bell Cow Road. This is the rendezvous spot for those interested in viewing the petroglyphs. Rock Art Ranch House Museum is three miles further east on Territorial Road on the south side..

Some experts suggest you might see an eagle when you look at this panel.  I saw an elephant first, then the wings....

Some experts suggest you see an eagle when you look at this panel. I saw an elephant first, then the wings…



FOR MORE CLOSEUPS OF ROCK ART AND DIFFERENT VIEWS OF THE CANYON VISIT SOUTHWESTPHOTOBANK.COM ‘S PHOTO GALLERY….CLICK HERE

FOR MORE ON SOUTHWEST ROCK ART VISIT THIS BLOG: THE LANGUAGE ON THE ROCKS

THE 2013 PECOS CONFERENCE WAS HELD IN FLAGSTAFF, ALMOST 500 ATTENDED, THE EVENT WAS SPONSORED BY THE MUSEUM OF NORTHERN HISTORY. IN THE BUSINESS MEETING, THE CONFERENCE NOW IN ITS 76 YEAR, WILL HOLD THE 77TH MEETING IN UTAH HOSTED BY THE CITY OF BLANDING AND THE EDGE OF THE CEDARS MUSEUM. THE 78TH MEETING WILL BE HELD IN AZTEC, NEW MEXICO IN AUGUST 2015…

The Pecos Conference attendees are growing older and the conference is hoping to make itself relevent to students and younger archaeologist and anthropologist. Here Gwen Gallenstein shares a woven basket with the conference attendees in hopes of finding a date for the basket.

The Pecos Conference attendees are growing older and the conference is hoping to make itself relevent to students and younger archaeologist and anthropologist. Gwen Gallenstein shares a woven basket with conference attendees looking to nail down a date when the basket was made. Gwen curates for the Museum of Northern Arizona.

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THE LANGUAGE ON THE ROCKS : WAS THE FLUTE-PLAYING KOKOPELLI, A TRADER, DIPLOMAT, TEACHER OR WITCH ? DID ROCK DRAWINGS REVEAL THE SECRETS OF THE COSMOS AND THE FACE OF EARLY MAN?

The Battle of the ATLATL's these spear-throwers extended the arm increasing the leverage extending the throw.

The Battle of the ATLATL’s these spear-throwers extended the arm increasing the leverage extending the throw.

Sego Canyon Fremont Rock Art Panel, Utah

DOES THIS ROCK DRAWING PUT A FACE on prehistoric man in Utah 2,000 years ago, did this Sego Canyon Fremont rock art bring us face to face with our past ? In fact, doesn’t everyone have a Uncle Bob that looks just like this ?

The successful hunt meant meat for everyone. The bow and arrow and horse mounted rider dates this drawing to after 1540 AD

BIGHORNS are strong magic and preferred game

BIGHORNS were strong magic and preferred game

South West Rock Art scattered throughout the canyons, washes and gullies of today’s American West Landscape may be the first written language on this continent. For centuries man has wondered about the thoughts and messenages expressed on these rocks, we know these early rock artists were preoccupied with subsistence living, “the successful hunt” moved their world forward. So ritual drawings of game, might be followed by a shadow hunt including spearing the drawn game in anticipation of the real-time experience. Their Gods showed ancient man how to live in harmony with the land, so did their rock art depicted their God? The Devil and the spirit helpers who do their bidding, like the Kachina, who teach and whose arrival signals the time to plant or harvest and a number of ritual responsibilities of the clans of the Pueblo people.

CRACK-IN-THE-ROCK RUIN NORTH OF FLAGSTAFF AZ

CRACK-IN-THE-ROCK RUIN NORTH OF FLAGSTAFF AZ

HOPI says the first people emerged into the
Fourth World from the belly-button of the Earth
each was handed a tablet, with a tribe of birth; like Hopi, Zuni, Pawnee, or Ute and each was given a clan to be born to. All emerged through the same Sipapu their ancient ancestors had first exited from to enter the present world. No one really knows when that was, but Bible scholars says the Garden of Eden bloomed 50,000 years ago and everyone believes North and South America was peopled from the Bering Strait when big game hunters followed their game over the legendary land bridge about the same time geology-wise. Today several studies show an infusion of people into North America could have been supplemented from the sea earlier.

Newspaper Rock, Utah

Newspaper Rock, Utah

but many Native American Oral Histories report their hunters following the mastodons into the frozen north where their stone tool weapons caused a gradual decline in the mastodon populations, the large beasts all bleeped out with the mass extinction caused when an asteroid hit the ocean, blocking out the sun and killing off all Pleistocene megafauna as a result of rapid climate change. UA Archaeologist Vance Haynes coined the term “black mat” for a layer of 10,000-year-old black soil seen in many North American archaeological studies and presumed to be residue from that massive explosion off South America.

Rock Art, images pecked from rock, can’t be dated but the patina (varnish) formed on a rock gives some idea of age. Painted rock art, however offers some chance of judging the age of a petroglyph by carbon dating chips of paint. Further dating can be done by dating associated material culture but deposited artifacts can be dropped any time and many sites are visited continuously over time, some are added to, others are subtracted from.

NEWSPAPER ROCK in south central Utah reflects the world view of the pre-Puebloan People

NEWSPAPER ROCK in south central Utah reflects the migratory world view of the ancestors of today’s Pueblo People.

Julian Hayden, judged by many the best field investigator in American Archaeology, worked on both of the legendary Snaketown digs, where he met Pima elders who allowed him to sit in on a three day telling of their (Pima) oral history. Hayden found himself working all day on the dig, listening to the Pima accounting of their past much of the night, then going home and writing it up before work. The Pima Oral History spoke of the first people settling there, but others moved on and over centuries, which became hundreds of years, these first

HAYDEN reported also the Oral History said that a people from the southeast had attacked and destroyed the "great houses" of the Salt-Gila Complex or the Hohokam Canal and Platform Communities. Hayden took that to mean the Sobaipuri Indians of the Upper San Pedro River Valley, southeastern Arizona

HAYDEN reported also the Oral History said that a people from the southeast had attacked and destroyed the “great houses” of the Salt-Gila Complex or the Hohokam Canal and Platform Communities. Hayden took that to mean the Sobaipuri Indians of the Upper San Pedro River Valley who once lived in southeastern Arizona.

people eventually reached land’s end in South America. They settled but eventually new starts began making their way back north, and oddly enough, they found people speaking their own language.
Sharing some common language its not surprising but to find MesoAmerican influence scattered throughout the American South West and many studies have wondered out loud how much sway the larger civilizations held over the frontier, others have found direct connections between these prehistoric pioneers and Central and South America Civilizations. We find bells forged in Mexico, Macaws from South America, ball courts and Trincheras sites where black volcanic mountains are terraced and take the look of a lush pyramid in a dusty desert.
KOKOPELLI, the watersprinkler brought Spring

KOKOPELLI, the watersprinkler brings Spring

Trade goods, pots, dyes and fabrics might have been the sort of merchandise Kokopelli or a trader might have carried to each village or traded to lone outposts he encountered along his way. His flute would entertain, he would share new ideas, speak of change on the horizon. The South West rock art expert, Polly Schaafsma, first introduced me to Kokopelli on the Utah banks of the San Juan River. Since that first encounter I have photographed the flute-player on the banks of the Little Colorado River just outside of Springerville, Az. I have found Kokopelli hiding amongst the boulders lining a tributary of the Rio Grande south of Santa Fe, NM. Kokopelli has become an old friend, and a personal link to the past. I have found him lying flat on his back, blowing his horn against the canyons walls on the Navajo Reservation, you find him today from central Utah to central Arizona, often with a hard-on, he is most easily found where the Anasazi once lived.

CHINLE WASH, NORTHERN ARIZONA ON THE NAVAJO RESERVATION

CHINLE WASH, NORTHERN ARIZONA ON THE NAVAJO RESERVATION


In central Arizona where Kokopelli first showed up on pottery in the Hohokam village of Snaketown along today’s Gila River. In Pueblo myths, Kokopelli carries seeds, babies, and blankets to offer the maidens he seduces. According to the Navajo, his hump was made of clouds filled with seeds and rainbows. In the Hopi village of Oraibi, they believe he carried deer skin shirts and moccasins which he used to barter for brides or babies which he left with the young women. Others believe that Kokopelli’s sack contained the seeds of all the plants and flowers in the world, which he scattered each Spring. Legend tell us, everyone in the village would sing and dance throughout the night when they heard Kokopelli play his flute. The next morning, every maiden in the village would be with child. KOKOPELLICampers still report hearing the haunting, sweet flute sounds floating on the wind along the San Juan River, particularly near Chinle Wash, home to the Navajo’s watersprinkler, the god of fertility and the giver of rain. When Kokopelli played his flute, the sun came out, the snow melted, grass began to grow, birds began to sing, and all the animals gathered around to hear his songs. His flute music soothed the Earth and made it ready to receive his seed.

San Ildefonso Pueblo legend, believed Kokopelli’s flute brought happiness, joy and embodied everything pure and spiritual about music. Kokopelli was a wandering minstrel they believe who carried songs on his back, trading new songs for old ones. According to this legend, Kokopelli brought good luck and prosperity to anyone who listened to his music.

A 18x30 inch 300mm lens slice of a rock art panel at Sand Island near Bluff Utah

A 18×30 inch 300mm lens slice of a rock art panel at Sand Island near Bluff Utah

My most interesting flute-player experience came in the form of a 300mm lens slice of a large rock art panel at Sand Island just south of Bluff Utah. This view showed a flute-playing mountain sheep carved in rock in the midst of the Navajo Nation this rock art is an remnant of the ANASAZI prehistoric culture and this isolated view is only 18 inches by 30 inches sliced from a rock art panel on a 150’ cliff beside the San Juan River. Most of that 150 foot cliff is rock art, this is simply a paragraph.

The detail appeared to me as very unique — a Mountain Goat playing the flute, like Kokopelli, so I pulled this view in with my 300mm lens and thought no more about it until one day when I visited Edgar Perry, a White Mountain Apache Medicine Man and described the panel to him from memory.EDGAR PERRY WSNAKE
Is there a crack between the two groups of sheep? he asked. Yes, I said. “That line represent the real world (topside) and the supernatural world (beneath),” he said. Topside you see two sheep walking on all fours beneath the crack you see two sheep — one standing on two legs and playing a flute and the other on all fours with a bird (raven) appearing from its head the Navajos call this, shape–shifting or perhaps, skinwalkers. The Medicine Man points out the White Sheep becoming a black Raven characterizes the battle between good and bad, right and wrong. Imagine if that much meaning can be taken from a fraction of the panel, imagine what you might learn from the entire display.

Shape-shifting as depicted in this panel is a common supernatural feature attributed to shaman,

Shape-Shifting shaman took on whatever form that was needed.

Shape-Shifting shaman took on whatever form that was needed.

who legend says can become any creature necessary to their purpose–a raven could cover great distances and spy on ones enemy, and a flute-playing sheep was probably a big draw for Kokopelli when he blew into a platform mound with a new line of goods. But honestly, the sheep was Kokopelli and the shaman in him just preferred hooves for the rock prehistoric roads he traveled.

North American’s rock art began long before the birth of Christ, and continues today. It’s function varies all over the South West. North to New Mexico’s Chaco Canyon, a rock wall there has a series of lines in a single panel said to mark the coming of the summer equinox, a sun dagger is said to mark the coming and going of summer. Elsewhere in Chaco’s back country another panel is said to depict a 10th century Super Nova seen around the world in the prehistoric sky. Is Kokopelli, the flute-player, the first “Kilroy was here” ? Or does this tradition depict another tradition of Mesoamerican traders who plied the prehistoric pathways of yesteryear carrying trade goods, news, entertainment and their own special DNA.

CRACK-IN-THE-ROCK RUIN

CRACK-IN-THE-ROCK RUIN SUN DAGGER

What we believe is rock art is timeless, it began in Europe 50,000 years ago ! In the American South West, it is believed to be priceless. Last fall a Las Vegas nineteen year old spent nine months in jail and was fined shy of $25,000 for spray painting blue graffiti on top on Rock Art thought to date from 1100 AD. Another incident in the high Sierra, where a team of vandals using ladders, power-saws, hammers, generators–stole four mural scenes by cutting them from 15 feet high lava cliffs, damaging two others.

Incidents like the one in the high Sierra, where an audience is unlikely, sites go unmonitored and with increased human contact brings pressure, cuts to budgets and a lack of enforcement where an implicit risk exists to all the rock art panels scattered though out the South West and deep into Mexico. Many South West archaeologists, like renown rock art researcher, Polly Schaafsma who wonders if south central Utah may well have been the central heart beat of the Rock Art movement.

Mid-Utah Fremont Culture drew this panel in Sego Canyon east of the Barrier Canyon Style display in Horseshoe Canyon, which was drawn by the Anasazi ancestors of the Basket-Maker Culture

Mid-Utah Fremont Culture drew this panel in Sego Canyon east of the Barrier Canyon Style display in Horseshoe Canyon, which was drawn by the Anasazi ancestors of the Basket-Maker Culture

In a short distance, three distinct Rock Art styles, show regional similarities, the same stylized high priest shamans, each wearing similar symbols of rank and dress and all three messages deal with the shamanistic powers of the individuals who the design emulates. Throughout history, the fellow with the press (or the money or the power) has always been the person able to get his message out, so I have to believe, the Shaman illustrated on these covered rock habitation sites were sending out a message. Many of these archaic Utah Rock Arts panels, have images that are frequently two-three feet in size and some reach five or six feet. Over time, images get smaller and the message seems to be softer, less stressed and more focused on everyday things, corn, sheep, religious designs (some also seen on pottery) and while shamanistic influence was everything around 300-400 AD by around 11-1200 AD it was much less important to the rock artist then than it was at the time of Christ. But these Fremont/Anasazi farmers/hunters lived in and about the San Juan River and while they had regional similarities in dress and ornaments, the Fremont artwork was preoccupied with hunting and warfare and the Anasazi Basket-makers farmers seemed preoccupied with the supernatural. The Anasazi were perhaps seasonal visitors who had smaller family groups and were subject to living life in harmony with their world. Their Fremont neighbors hunted, competed for game and probably felt first the squeeze from marauding raiders (southern Piaute) who took their food and their family as slaves, their sites were lousy with arrow points.

BARRIER CANYON SHAMAN

BARRIER CANYON’S HOLY GHOST MAY BE THE MOST DRAMATIC ROCK ART PANEL ON THE COLORADO PLATEAU

Despite similarities, Polly Schaafsma suggests interesting differences; the Canyonlands Maze Unit Shaman gallery might be a portrait of all the shamans who over time have led and given direction about life, past spiritual leaders whose combined knowledge would be the fountain of understanding for all things. Unlike, other sites developed over time, this Shaman gallery in the Barrier (Horseshoe) Canyon might have been a single performance — by one artist a snapshot of the ancestors! Some paint is thought to have been blown through a straw.

Perhaps two thousand years have passed since an artist stood flat-footed and painted these drawings

Perhaps two thousand years have passed since an artist stood flat-footed and painted these drawings

Or was it a doorway for some to the Cosmos, was it an Oracle for others where they found the answer to life’s questions ? Did the Holy Ghost answer the prayers of the Anasazi Basket maker people known to be living in the area around the birth of Christ? Frequent Carbon 14 rating attempts to date this site suggest the rock art should be 2,000 years old or older.
While these shaman wear similar headgear and breastplates seen on the shaman of the Fremont People to the West, the Lower Butler Canyon Rock Art emphasized the animal helpers who worked with the shaman, the ability to hear and see what is hidden, the ability to change shape-a man becomes a mountain sheep or raven — whatever is needed. In Leslie Spier’s book “YUMAN PEOPLE” published around 1925 he interviews lots of Colorado River Tribe members who were 60-70 years old, one tale told of a shaman whose tribe was facing attack and perhaps ambush, who slept on the question and when he arose, he said he had seen the enemy camped on the other side of the mountain leading his warriors to a successful surprise attack.
Figure at left with enlarged hands may reflect a drug trip where the painter experienced hallucinations about the size of his hands.

Enlarged hands may reflect a drug trip where the painter experienced hallucinations about the size of his hands.

Hallucinogens, like Datura or Mushrooms have long been attributed to the trance experienced and to the exaggerated features shown on the Shaman. Today’s drug researchers have found subjects who take hallucinogenic mushrooms find the experience to be the most meaningful spiritual event they have ever experienced.”I was so small and everything was so big”, they report. The participant reports, “a self-awareness” and is often able to comprehend the scale of the Universe and see their small and insignificant place in the total scheme of things it was, they say, a “basically indescribable experience”. These rock art galleries held great importance for the people of their period. As time passed, rock art became less spiritual and more informational and more abstract and decorative, maybe Kokopelli was the “KILROY was here” of the time, his passing would have been worthy of note.
Kilroy' was a 46-year old shipyard worker during the war who worked as a checker at a shipyard . His job was to go around and check on the number of rivets completed. Riveters  got paid by the rivet. He would count a block of rivets and put a check mark in waxed lumber chalk, so the rivets wouldn't be counted twice. Soldiers, Sailors and Marines saw his moniker and began leaving it behind everywhere they went and soon Kilroy had liberated all of Europe before the allies had arrived.

Kilroy’ was a 46-year old shipyard worker during the war who worked as a checker at a shipyard . His job was to go around and check on the number of rivets completed. Riveters got paid by the rivet. He would count a block of rivets and put a check mark in waxed lumber chalk, so the rivets wouldn’t be counted twice. Soldiers, Sailors and Marines saw his moniker and began leaving it behind everywhere they went and soon Kilroy had liberated all of Europe before the allies had even arrived.


The Rock Art of the Anasazi Basketmaker Rock Art is still revered, perhaps even feared today, because of its potent power. Many rock art sites have been added to, over time, right up to the present. In the Chinle Wash where Tony Hillerman set the drama found in his book, "A Thief of Time" Polly Schaafsma shows us where someone has attacked a piece of rock art with an axe. The "vandal" completely destroyed the offending design, but Schaafsma suggests this may be a case of self-defense. This area of the Navajo Reservation is said to have skinwalkers who might even work with medicine men.
EARLY MAN CREATED THIS SHAMAN DRAWING BUT NAVAJO MEDICINE MAN USED AN AXE ON THIS DRAWING TO FREE HIS PATIENT

EARLY MAN CREATED THIS SHAMAN DRAWING BUT NAVAJO MEDICINE MAN USED AN AXE ON THIS DRAWING TO FREE HIS PATIENT

The destroyed rock art was an archaic design said to be used by a skinwalker for great power to place a curse on a now living Navajo, who by axing the rock, he freed himself from the skinwalkers curse. In Doug Preston’s Talking to the Ground, skinwalkers are said to shoot splinters of bone or teeth into their victims or sprinkle “corpse powder” triggering “ghost-sickness” in their victims, who then go to see the Medicine Man, who lifts the skinwalkers curse and splits the fee with the skinwalker, reservation-style free-enterprise?

POLLY SCHAAFSMA

POLLY SCHAAFSMA

“The power people perceive in these drawings, isn’t good or bad, it’s there for the using ! An evil-mined person might use the power to hex someone!”, says Polly Schaafsma. When this is done, it becomes necessary for a medicine man to break the connection by destroying the figures. If you are a witch (skinwalker) and the hex doesn’t works–it backfires on you.” So the village Shaman helped people cope and solve life’s problems, often performing shamanic feats with supernatural powers for the benefit of the group. With aid from their spirit helpers who contact the ancestors through supernatural spirits for help in curing, fertility, divining, hunting, battle and the weather.

The Lower Butler Wash site is more of a site showing shaman with their spirit helpers and displaying special abilities to see and hear and perhaps talk through spirit helpers to the nature world.

The Lower Butler Wash site shows shaman with their spirit helpers and displaying special abilities to see and hear and perhaps talk through spirit helpers or animal totem to the nature world.

The abstracted anthropomorphs with shamanistic supernatural abilities is a rock art subject repeated again and again in the canyons of the Colorado Plateau, many are surrounded or aided by “animal spirit helpers”, or demonstrate their shape-shifting skills or trance-like abilities that allow the shaman to see lost objects, the presence of evil spirits, the cause of an illness, the future and the past. The Horseshoe Canyon or Barrier Canyon site in the Maze Canyonland district could be the portrait of the principal shaman. When times got bad and resources were scarce they used magic to improve their lot. It would have been very dramatic to bring in new initiates at night with light from torches lighting up the rock art for ritual initiations, drug-assisted vision quests and for praying to your God. The name of your world means “Made for You”.

The Lower Butler Wash was chiseled by an artist pecking a straight controlled line, while the Holy Ghost Gallery was partially sprayed onto the limestone and both reflect this ghostly, ancestrial-spirit overtones which are absent in the Fremont Panels which highlight war-like motifs.

BARRIER CANYON SHAMAN

THE HOLY GHOST or EARTH GOD, door keeper to the 5th World of the Hopi and the Keeper of Fire and Master of the Fourth World (our present day world) or MASAUWV or Skeleton Man, the Spirit of Death surrounded by their helpers. This display is believed a one-time ceremony perhaps marking the doorway to the underworld or the Sipapu of all Life! Was it also entrance to both Heaven and Hell ?

HAND PRINTS APPEAR THROUGHOUT TIME RESEARCHERS BELIEVE IT WAS A WAY FOR SPIRITS TO ID WHOSE PRAYERS. ANTHROMORPHS BEGAN IN THE SAN JUAN AREA AND THE ROCK ART MOTIF SPREAD THROUGH OUT THE ANASAZI WORLD BUT AS TIME EVOLVED ROCK ART BECAME MORE STYLIZED OR DECORATIVE ALL OVER. HORSESHOE CANYON AND BARRIER CANYON ARE ONE AND THE SAME.

HAND PRINTS APPEAR THROUGHOUT TIME RESEARCHERS BELIEVE IT WAS A WAY FOR SPIRITS TO ID WHOSE PRAYERS. ANTHROMORPHS BEGAN IN THE SAN JUAN AREA AND THE ROCK ART MOTIF SPREAD THROUGH OUT THE ANASAZI WORLD BUT AS TIME EVOLVED ROCK ART BECAME MORE STYLIZED OR DECORATIVE ALL OVER. HORSESHOE CANYON AND BARRIER CANYON ARE ONE AND THE SAME.

“It’s like two different clubs were operating on separate sides of the (San Juan) river,” says Schaafsma about the similarities between the Fremont Culture Shaman Gallery and the one in Horseshoe Canyon judged to be a very old ritual site for the Anasazi Basket Maker Culture. Did the Holy Ghost figure represent the “soul force” of a departed shaman still aiding his flock from the underworld ? Schaafsma believe it was “important to do (paint) it here” beneath this 170′ high rock alcove which may have been viewed as a doorway to the supernatural world. Then there was a “ritualistic painting” which called for a ceremoniously gathering of the materials, sing song in prayer and then the painting in Horseshoe Canyon is believed to be done by one person in a single setting. In rock art an animal drawing upon completion its possible that the artist might attack it with a spear in anticipation of the hunt to come and in hopes of swaying the gods will about the outcome of the hunt.

Fremont Culture Shaman with their "spirit helpers"

Fremont Culture Shaman Drawing at Sego Canyon, Utah

FREMONT CULTURE ROCK ART AT CAPITOL REEF NATIONAL MONUMENT

FREMONT CULTURE ROCK ART AT CAPITOL REEF NATIONAL MONUMENT

Newer Rock Art does function much like the graffiti-kids spray on my neighbor’s fence, it shows their territory. Rock Art show many different styles and demonstrates a large number of cultural influences, even where one culture begins, where it begins to morph or blends with other nearby cultures or where an entirely different group begins. Over time researchers find the importance of the message changes, as does, the message. Anasazi Rock Art, like this Hohokam rock art from 1000 AD seems more casual or more graffiti-like than the much older Basket Maker archaic floating Shaman. There is an old Navajo saying that “pride and arrogance” were the downfall of the Anasazi who they believed learned too much and simply disappeared! The Navajo say “They wrote all their knowledge on the rock walls before they left, but over time it became too abstract to understand.

Newspaper Rock outside of Gila Bend AZ at Painted Rocks State Park.

Newspaper Rock outside of Gila Bend AZ at Painted Rocks State Park.

ACID RAIN has been blamed for diminishing the once dramatic rock art gallery of floating Shaman’s found on the covered back wall of an Anasazi Basketmaker II site featuring a fifty foot panel of a dozen figures in Horseshoe Canyon of the Maze District in Utah’s Canyon lands where it is feared the nearby coal-operated Page, AZ electricity generation plant has caused more deterioration in the past 20 years than seen there in the previous 2000 years. South West Rock Art might well have been the original email, a short concise message for a specific audience. Messaging has come full circle, if you buy the email you get today on your smartphone, is the rock art equivalent of a thought expressed on a prominent rock feature certain to capture the desired audience. Graffiti may also link us with those prehistoric artists and archaeologist must struggle with the question, does a nice blank surface require a creative hand to leave its mark–will man make art, regardless of what he has to say “Kilroy was Here!” for instance ? Or is the message everything ?

Prehistoric Rock Art is Disappearing ... people and pollution are the main culprits.  This famous artwork panel in North Central Baja has been destroyed by vandals drawing on the walls between the color rock paintings which were so characteristic of all of Baja's Rock Art and was once numbered among the best panels to visit.

Prehistoric Rock Art is Disappearing … people and pollution are the main culprits. This famous artwork panel in North Central Baja has been destroyed by vandals drawing on the walls between this old color rock painting so characteristic of all of Bajas’ Rock Art and was once numbered among the best panels to visit.


TEEN GETS PRISON FOR DEFACING 1000 YEAR OLD ROCK ART AND FINED….CLICK HERE

HELP PROTECT THE PAST Rock art must never be touched; oils from human skin can discolor or eventually obliterate the designs. Rock art is protected by the Archaeological resources Protection Act of 1979 and the Antiquities Act of 1906


ROCK ART OF UTAH BY POLLY SCHAAFSMA

INDIAN ROCK ART OF THE SOUTHWEST BY POLLY SCHAAFSMA
(School of American Research Southwest Indian Arts Series)

VISIT THE SECRET CANYON OF THE FREMONT PEOPLE: VIDEO OF SOME OF THE 6000 PRISTINE PREHISTORIC SITES

HANDBOOK OF ROCK ART RESEARCH BY DAVID S. WHITLEY


SOUTH WEST PHOTO BANK SOUTHWEST ROCK ART PHOTO GALLERIES….CLICK HERE

[caption id="attachment_6968" align="aligncenter" width="489"]"Baseball Man" perhaps the most intriguing rock art painting in the Chinle Wash System. “Baseball Man” perhaps the most intriguing rock art painting in the Chinle Wash System.

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MUL-CHU-THA RODEO and FAIR: IS A FOOT RACE TO A BETTER LIFE ! PEE POSH AND AKIMEL O’ODHAM TRIBES TAG TEAM COMMUNITY PROGRESS WITH GATHERINGS

ALL-INDIAN BULL RIDERS

TIME TO UPDATE FAMILY PHOTOS

TIME TO UPDATE FAMILY PHOTOS

Historically the Pee Posh and Akimel O’Odham Tribes have lived together in the Gila River Valley, farming and channeling water from the river to provide food, employment and cooling refreshment in one of the hottest places in the United States. Legend tells us the Gila River Indian Community dates back to the Hohokam who farmed Southern Arizona around 300 B.C. Following in their ancestors footsteps the Akimel O’Odham (Pima tribe) and the Pee Posh (Maricopa) now makeup the 372,000 acre reservation that is divided there into seven districts.

The Mul-Chu-Tha Fair, was born over lunch as tribal employees ate together and shared experiences from their youth. One hot day, they reminisced about the fun they enjoyed swimming in the water canals to cool off. The group decided a swimming pool was needed. The pool complex would give kids a place to have fun and to have activities, the community liked the idea of bringing their youth together and folks want to encourage the Pima family so they held a community fair to raise funds and invited the whole valley to come to the Gila River Indian Community in 1962 and celebrate with their people.

NORTHERN DRUM

DARRELL HILL DANCES JUNIOR BOYS DANCE GRASS FREESTYLE

DARRELL HILL DANCES JUNIOR BOYS DANCE GRASS FREESTYLE

In naming the fair and the Tribes wanted a traditional name so “Mul-Chu-Tha,” which means foot races in Pima, was selected. The foot-race historically, Pima runners would hustle from village-to-village or district-to-district and races became a tribal way of sharing entertainment, news and tribal events.

THE "WE CHILDREN" DANCE GROUP IS MADE UP OF DANCERS FROM EACH VILLAGE OF THE 6TH DISTRICT

THE “WE CHILDREN” DANCE GROUP IS MADE UP OF DANCERS FROM EACH VILLAGE OF THE 6TH DISTRICT

Mul-Chu-Tha was chosen as the Sacaton, Arizona annual Community gathering in March, which is preceded by IRA HAYES DAYS in Feburary when Indian color guards from all over the United States attend to parade in honor of one Sacaton favorite son, renown as one of five US servicemen raising the US Battleflag above the Island of Iwo Jima, immortalized by a photograph, that instilled into hearts of the US Public that for the first time since the bombing at Pearl Harbor the US had kicked some ass, and the direction of World War II had turned.
HAYES RAISED A LARGE FLAG FROM A BATTLE SHIP SO EVERYONE ON THE ISLAND COULD SEE

HAYES RAISED A LARGE FLAG FROM A BATTLE SHIP SO EVERYONE ON THE ISLAND COULD SEE

Every Feburary, warriors from all all over the US turn up to homage to Ira Hayes. In the Sacaton Square I have watched folks line up to have their picture taken with a life-size statue of Ira, one fellow was wearing the US Medal of Honor around his neck, I meet a white fella from Mesa who comes every year because it is the only place he feels honored for his roll as a warrior. Three X-16’s blast over the crowd at five story level beginning the Saturday morning Parade followed by a B-17, a P-52 Mustang and three bi-planes, very cool. I spoke with Indian color guards from Montana, Wyoming, Wisconsin, Rhode Island, New Mexico, each of the 20 plus Arizona Indian Reservations was represented by bands, color guards, dance groups, ROTC Jr Cadets, vet groups like the Rez Runners Motorcycle Group, as well as, the Patriot Riders, along with vintage Army firepwer and jeeps.

LATE FEBURARY THE ENTIRE COMMUNITY CELEBRATE THE LIFE OF ONE FAVORITE SON, "IRA HAYES"

LATE FEBURARY THE ENTIRE COMMUNITY CELEBRATE THE LIFE OF ONE FAVORITE SON, “IRA HAYES”


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This unique community has a symbionic relationship between the Akimel O’Odham and Maricopa people, both Piman People, like their cousins the Tohono O’Odham, who live southwest of Tucson and into Mexico. In fact, the southern Piman People are said to live as far south of Mexico’s Rio Yaqui below Guaymas, Sonora. Chicken Scratch or Waila Music is a kind of dance music developed by the Tohono O’Odham people says wickipedia.com who says the genre evolved out of acoustic fiddle bands in the Sonoran desert. The term waila comes from Spanish bailar, meaning to dance. Chicken scratch is a traditional Tohono O’odham dance, which involves kicking the heels high in the air, which supposedly bears a resemblance to a chicken scratching. Chicken scratch, however, is at its root, an interpretation of norteño music, which is itself a Mexican adaptation of polka. Many chicken scratch bands play polka songs with a distinctive flourish, and may also play the waltz. “Chicken scratch” dance is the “walking two step or the walking polka with smooth gliding movements and is always performed counterclockwise”.
CHICKEN SCRATCH DANCERS ARE NOVEL TO SOUTHERN ARIZONA

CHICKEN SCRATCH DANCERS ARE NOVEL TO SOUTHERN ARIZONA


PERFORMING FOR THE CROWD THIS BAND HAD DANCERS ALL AFTERNOON

PERFORMING FOR THE CROWD THIS BAND HAD DANCERS ALL AFTERNOON

CROWD ENJOYING THE WAILA EXPRESS BAND

CROWD ENJOYING THE WAILA EXPRESS BAND

Since building their Swimming Pool, Senior Citizen’s Center and Headstart School for more than fifty one years these two tribal communities have pulled together like family and carved a life for their themselves and friends along the Gila River in Central Arizona. This year the Mul-Chu-Tha was held March 16-18, 2013 and like all years started with a Junior Rodeo on Friday morning featuring hundreds of future cowboys and cowgirls who struggled with the stock to rise to score.

DANCERS FROM THE 5TH DISTRICT

DANCERS FROM THE 5TH DISTRICT

"WE CHILDREN"
Traditionally, Miss Gila River Community, is crowned and she and her court go out to other Indian communities and represent the Gila River Indian Community throughout the South West. The Miss Gila River Pageant was established and girls were chose by their districts to compete for the title of Miss Gila River.
CRADLEBOARD BABY

CRADLEBOARD BABY

TRIBAL ROYALITY

TRIBAL ROYALITY

Since 1962, the Mul-Chu-Tha, has grown to become one of the most highly recognized tribal fairs in Indian Country. Back in the day. tribal members of the community competed in foot races, wood chopping contests, a small carnival and a fashion show featuring clothing made by community seamstresses. For more than 51 years, the Mul-Chu-Tha Fair has been a symbol of Sacaton Community Tribal spirit and dedication to pull together and to create a positive event, with something for everyone to enjoy. So today the All-Indian Rodeo and Pow Wow pull in participants from all over the U.S., in another huge tent, is the Battle of Chicken Scratch Bands. Traditional Indian dancing is featured for all participating tribes or villages who have traditional dances in another separate enclosure, there is a huge carnival midway with food court and another huge tent with seating for visiting and eating, bands play, people dance and folks visit, like family.

Saturday morning started with the parade downtown and featured many prizes for the participants.

LETICA GARCIA AND SHERRY MARK CONJURE UP SOME FRY BREAD FOR THEIR FOOD BOOTH. SATURDAY MORNING THERE WAS A FRY BREAD COOKOFF.

LETICA GARCIA AND SHERRY MARK CONJURE UP SOME FRY BREAD FOR THEIR FOOD BOOTH. SATURDAY MORNING THERE WAS A FRY BREAD COOKOFF.

BIRD SING AND DANCE COMPETITION IS HELD SATURDAY AT NOON

BIRD SING AND DANCE COMPETITION IS HELD SATURDAY AT NOON

The most interesting part of the first fair was that they held the traditional O’Odham game of “toka,” which today could be considered as similiar to lacrosse. Another big draw in those days, were the matachina dancers. Over the decades, the Mul-Chu-Tha Fair has supported and helped to promote unity within the Community. This fair continues to grow since that simple beginning with few who wanted to find a way to make their Community a better place and provide a little fun for everyone. They succeeded!

Tohono  O'Odham women for centuries have played this lacrosse style stick game.

Tohono O’Odham women for centuries have played this lacrosse style stick game.

The Fair continues in celebrating their people, their families, their friends, all together in “Honoring Our Ancestors”.

Top Parade Winners featured Salt River Steppers as the best Dance band, the District Five Jujudom won top honors in Chair Volleyball. The Chicken Scratch Battle of the Bands honored the Papago Warriors. Ira Hayes School won the best float for a school club while second place went to Baboquivari High School Road Warriors and third place went to Indian Oasis Elementary Cheer Squad and Gu Achi Cowgirls took fourth.

Andy Jackson (center) hugs his little brother Anthony (right) and Gavin Antone'  this trio were big fans of the midway...

Andy Jackson (center) hugs his little brother Anthony (right) and Gavin Antone’ this trio were big fans of the midway…

The Community groups winning in the Parade for floats were first place was the District Five Elderly Center, second place went to the District Four Recreation Committee and third went to the Health Resources Department.

Over the weekend, there was a Men’s Basketball Tournament where the Last Reds took the top bracket followed by the Da Spurs, the Komatke Kings and the Lake Powell Bombers. The Women’s Basketball Tournament honored top honors to Team Arizona, followed by the Hot Shots, Rez Gals and Lady Hoops.

ROBIN LITTLE CLOUD, has her own footrace to run. Little Cloud is the president of COYOTE KETTLE CORN, FOOD and CAKE SALES who along with family, a dozen of her children, grandchildren and five more working from the extended family they create popovers, burritos and cakes featuring their Chocolate, Strawberry, Lemon and Pineapple Upside Down Cakes. With the help of family, Little Cloud has been able to cover all the bases. Letica Garcia is the only outsider helping out with Coyote Kettle, she and Little Cloud’s daughter Sherry Mark met as students at Northern Arizona University. Garcia, is Tohono O’Odham from south of Sells, and helps out for the big events when they need people sweating over hot flames. Like Garcia, the Tohono O’Odham Tribe, also a Piman people and first cousins to the Akimel O’Odham Tribe is usually not far off, and always willing to participate in the Gila River Indian Community events because that’s what family does and the Southern Arizona Tribes for centuries have been partners in carving a better way of life from the Sonoran Desert.


CLICK HERE FOR MORE MULCHUTHA 2013 PHOTOS…..

CLICK HERE FOR earlier MUL+CHU_THA in SouthwestPhotoBank Galleries….

CLICK to view photos of the Tohono Historic Toka Game see SouthWestPhotoBanks Photos from Sells, Arizona

CLICK HERE to see photos from Sells, Az and the Tohono O’odham 75th Rodeo and Fair 2012


CLICK HERE to view photos from 2011 Tohono Rodeo and Fair..

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U.S. BRACES FOR WORST BLIZZARD IN RECENT HISTORY, TUCSON GIGGLES ABOUT THE WHITE STUFF….

AS NIGHT APPROACHES SNOW CONTINUED TO FALL IN NORTHERN TUCSON.

AS NIGHT APPROACHES SNOW CONTINUED TO FALL IN NORTHERN TUCSON.

SLUSHY, RE-FREEZING RAIN AND SNOW WILL MAKE DRIVING CONDITIONS DIFFICULT.

SLUSHY, RE-FREEZING RAIN AND SNOW WILL MAKE DRIVING CONDITIONS DIFFICULT.

THIS IS ONE CONVERTIBLE THAT DOESN'T HAVE ITS TOP DOWN TONIGHT.

THIS IS ONE CONVERTIBLE THAT DOESN’T HAVE ITS TOP DOWN TONIGHT.

TUCSON, ARIZONA was surprised today at Noon with a blizzard–not one of those ice cream drinks, a wanna-beee whiteout or blowing snow all through Tucson mid-town.

Chester, a Sheltie takes a hard look at all the white stuff falling on his patio.

Chester, a Sheltie takes a hard look at all the white stuff falling on his patio.

The higher elevations were receiving major snow and the road to the top of the Catalina Mountains was closed at the base, to anyone but residents and employees with 4×4 or chains. All the major southern Arizona Peaks will get snow tonight and as night fell in northwest Tucson, there was some accumulation–but elsewhere it was already gone…

MORE TUCSON SNOW PHOTOS VISIT SOUTHWESTPHOTOBANK.COM….

RANCHO VISTOSO SAFEWAY PARKING LOT

RANCHO VISTOSO SAFEWAY PARKING LOT

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THE EPIC 24 HOURS in the OLD PUEBLO MOUNTAIN BIKE RACE TEST THE METTLE OF THE BIKER AND THE METAL OF THE BIKE, COMPETING RIDERS CUTOFF AT 1875

24 HOURS IN THE OLD PUEBLO MOUNTAIN BIKE RACE FIELDS ALMOST 2000 RIDERS WITH A RUNNING START

24 HOURS IN THE OLD PUEBLO MOUNTAIN BIKE RACE FIELDS ALMOST 2000 RIDERS WITH A RUNNING START

PASSING ON THE HIGHPOINT TRAIL TAKES A LOWER GEAR

PASSING ON THE HIGHPOINT TRAIL TAKES A LOWER GEAR

THE EPIC 24 HOURS IN THE OLD PUEBLO MOUNTAIN BIKE RACE, has grown into a world class event, pulling in bike riders from all over the Unites States, Canada, four riders from Italy and raised 5 tons of food for the community food bank points out Todd Sadow, the 24 Hour event director. Weather makes Southern Arizona great this time of the year but in the fourteen years since 24 Hours began, several years were wet and muddy which produces grumpy riders. Many other years were a mix, some much colder, others not so, one year it rained all weekend. The 2013 24 Hours Bike Race was perfect.
HELMET CAMS ARE THE RAGE

HELMET CAMS ARE THE RAGE

RIDERS STACK THEIR BIKES  CLOSE TO THE START

RIDERS STACK THEIR BIKES CLOSE TO THE START

COMPANY FOR THOSE LONELY NIGHTS

COMPANY FOR THOSE LONELY NIGHTS

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Seat down meal or a quick bite, or a coffee to go...

Seat down meal or a quick bite, or a coffee to go…

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RUNNING DOWN THEIR BIKES

RUNNING DOWN THEIR BIKES

Bikers set up camp Thursday in 24 HOUR TOWN which has its own radio station K-EPIC 105.7 FM, tee-shirts, ball caps, the SW Best BBQ for Tri-Tip Steak Sandwiches and Blue Banjo Breakfast burritos, for caffeine, Peddler on the Path, offered both espresso and coffee. To sit down and enjoy sauteed mussel and shrimp dishes, both meat and vegan meals are available from the Chef’s Kitchen run by the Cryderman family who offer a host of savory dishes. Rules for 24 HOUR TOWN, is simply, BE NICE, HAVE FUN AND DON’T HARSH THE MELLOW. The Pinal County Sheriff has a whole list of other rules, but they were there to protect the public welfare or watch the mellow, everyone appreciates their help making the event safe and successful. The orientation ride for the newbee’s was led by Rebecca Rusch, the “QUEEN OF PAIN” who holds three 24 Hour Solo World Champion and four-time Leadville 100 winner. It was recommended as a good way to learn the course. Fires were small and contained, propane was big for heat but body heat was the recommended to minimize the impact on the Willow Springs Ranch where the race is held. Campers tents, cars BBQs were all packed in tight with only inches between each other, attempting to stay within the open space available without killing more desert. I met riders this year from Oregon, California, New Mexico, Texas, Colorado, from all over Arizona and Tucson. Riders wanting to race were cutoff at 1875 riders, walk-ons if they had not preregistered, could not race. I met a 34 year old Junior High School Principal named Ryan who flew in from Wisconsin to Tucson with his buddy and their bikes to race, and they couldn’t race but they rode the course prior to the race and slept in their car, rather bother coming back to Tucson and bed, “this is where we want to be he reported”. They were having fun anyway, “Mountain Bikers are much more outgoing folks” says Ryan, “Roadies or road racers, stare at the ground and say nothing to nobody and are competitive as hell, all about winning”. Mountain bikers are all about having fun, their campground-city 24 HOUR TOWN is jammed together into the smallest footprint possible, with trailers, winnibagos, fith wheel campers, car camps, cactus, canopies and trucks, plenty of cholla. At noon on Saturday everyone heads down to the start line where all riders have stashed their bikes on racks, afterwards the riders walk about 400 yards down the road where 1800 riders will get a Lemans-style running start, initiated by a 12 gauge shotgun. There are solo riders who will be seated on that bike seat for almost 24 hours straight and there are teams, many 4-5 riders each who will pass the baton to each other off and on for the next day. Either way, many have decorated their helmets with lighting, cholla-preventers, web cams (front and back), dolls and dinosaurs and beer cans, and all have lighting on their bikes. Many participants have raced at the 24 Hours before, but many confessed to being newbee’s, all were ready and excited. Four teams were made-up of Tucson youth aging between 12-18, and all twenty-five riders are driven bikers called El Grupo Youth Cycling and winners already, I was told there is “a bad-ass or two” in that group. After the huge start, I headed over to the end where the riders descend a rock face to time out for the lap of 16 miles around Black Mountain, 40 miles north of Tucson, in the pristine Sonoran Desert.
END OF THE 16.3 MILE TRAIL

END OF THE 16.3 MILE TRAIL

RIDER TAKES A HARD FALL

RIDER TAKES A HARD FALL

When the leader started down the rock, Ryan pointed out he was a pro rider who lived in Wisconsin during the summer and in Arizona in winter, his lap had taken around a hour, twenty minutes. By noon on President’s Day this city of 4,000 will have disappeared without a trace. Except for the $20,000 raised for the Bag-it Charity and the four to five tons of canned food raised for the Community Food Bank, this event brings quality athletes into the South Western United States and brings big tourist dollars to communities nearby like Catalina, Oro Valley and Tucson. Many 24 Hour in the Old Pueblo participants were riders from Tucson, most of them knew that the Old Pueblo, is what Tucson was called in its earliest days during the 1700’s…

This thin ribbon of cactus free desert stretches 16 plus miles around Willow Springs Ranch.

This thin ribbon of cactus free desert stretches 16 plus miles around Willow Springs Ranch.

MORE 24 HOURS in the OLD PUEBLO PHOTOGRAPHS, GO TO SOUTHWEST PHOTOBANK GALLERIES….CLICK HERE

TRAFFIC EBBS AND FLOWS ON THE HIGHPOINT TRAIL THEN IT ALL STACKS UP IN THE CHOLLA

TRAFFIC EBBS AND FLOWS ON THE HIGHPOINT TRAIL THEN IT ALL STACKS UP IN THE CHOLLA

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SADDLEBROOK SNOW “PERFECT STORM”, WINTER-WONDERLAND MORNING, GONE BY MID-DAY…

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THIS SADDLEBROOKE GARGOYLE SHOWS LITTLE ENTHUSIASM FOR THIS CHANGE IN THE WEATHER-NO REAL FAN OF SNOW...

THIS SADDLEBROOKE GARGOYLE SHOWS LITTLE ENTHUSIASM FOR THIS CHANGE IN THE WEATHER-NO REAL FAN OF SNOW…

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While the Northeast United States is digging out of three feet of new snow and a blizzard of historic proportions — across the great divide on the opposite side of the U.S. Tucsonans awoke to a frosty white deposit on all the mountains surrounding this desert community. The Catalina Range above 9,000 feet took the biggest hit with a fancy white shawl laced down to her foothills. More surprisingly, was the dusting left on the Tortolita’s, the Tucson’s, the Santa Rita’s and the Rincon Mountains all had deep deposits on their higher peaks. Much like the song about Camelot, the rain fell during the night and was gone by daybreak, snow on all peaks is a unique event particularly when the overall temperatures were already in the fifties. Clouds kept sunshine from attacking the snow until around noon when it popped out and the snow began retreating but not before the breaking up clouds allowed the sun to spotlight the peaks setting off their snowy lids against dark backgrounds. Saddlebrooke, Arizona recently was selected as one of the best retirement communities in the United States, particularly due to its setting at the base of the Santa Catalina Range not far from the University of Arizona’s BioSphere, City of Tomorrow. The snow was a big draw and brought lots of walkers out to stride around and check out what snow does when it falls on the desert. It is very textured experience and folks can be very impressed, most remembered winters back east like today which has seized the entire eastern seaboard, shutting down businesses, keeping folks at home, stopping the trains, buses and more than 5,000 air flights. Today the east coast is paralyzed, highways shut down, folks are stranded, some without phone and power lines are down and people are again without heat and lighting–today in Tucson the sun showed itself around noon, warmed up the land and melted away all the snow. There was nothing worse back in the mid-west, three months into a long winter with the black dirty snow stacked against curb and at times in the middle of the streets and knowing you would be climbing over that ugly snow for weeks, except when it would melt quick and refreeze as a invisible glaze–that’s when things really got fun. Southern Arizona was magnificent this morning, the air was so clear you could see forever and by afternoon, it was just beautiful.

SOUTHWESTPHOTOBANK PHOTO GALLERIES: FOR MORE SNOW PICTURES…CLICK HERE

U.S. and CANADA DIG OUT OF HISTORIC SNOWSTORM, 370 THOUSAND WITHOUT POWER, 15 DEAD… CLICK HERE

TORTOLITA'S MOUNTAINS 1460

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SELLS 75TH ALL INDIAN RODEO & FAIR, OLDEST IN THE UNITED STATES & BEST ENTERTAINMENT TICKET!

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Yree Lepa

Yree Lepa

Celebrating the 75th year of the Tohono O’odham Nation Rodeo & Fair, the longest running All-Indian rodeo in the United States! The Rodeo & Fair is the biggest and most expansive event of the year. Bring the family out to enjoy the full experience there is sure to be something for everyone – rodeo competitions, traditional games, food, crafts, carnival rides, fun run, exhibits and performances. The U.S. longest-running American Indian rodeo has a Junior Rodeo which this year fielded 300 young ones, it has a powwow, carnival, parade, Wailia dances, and food/crafts at the Livestock Complex in Sells, 60 miles west of Tucson. PKW_1326 This year’s schedule ran from January 31 through February 3, 2013 at the Eugene P. Tashquinth Sr. Livestock Complex in Sells, Arizona. Named after the long-time voice of Tribal Rodeo’s, the Chu Chui resident (1929-2006) Eugene Tashquinth spent his days bringing order to chaos, heading up most of the events at the livestock area, so when they built the new one, they named it after Eugene Tashquinth. Equally proud is the Tohono O’odham Hedricks family whose matriarch Silas’s name blesses the Rodeo pavilion where he excelled in the arena, his grandson Chad Hedrick put the first score (6.3) on the clock with his bareback ride. Sells is a place of tradition and for the ten thousand residents of the third largest Indian reservation in the United States the annual rodeo and fair is a time of gathering, folks begin gathering before noon and the festivities go way into the night with the Wailia ending around l a.m.. The Rodeo and Pow Wow bring in native American competitors from all over the South West, particularly from Arizona tribes, like the Navajo, Hopi, San Carlos Apache, White Mountain Apache Tribe and their Tohono cousins: the Pima and Maricopa Tribes. Every year, is an old-home-town visit, with folks coming together to visit, catch-up, see who big all the cousins have gotten and to get new pictures of the kids. PKW_1184PKW_1197PKW_1134 The mid-way is a beacon to all who love carnivals, greasy food, fast rides, regge music from Bob Marley, and tee shirts featuring heavy music idols and black goth signs. Visitors pay $8 for a wristband allowing all day access, for those over 55 years-of-age, the senior charge is $2. The annual Toka Tournament brings together the Tohono O’odham “Dream Teams”, like “Sun-Running-Women” who battle it out on a football sized field fighting over a wooden puck laced with leather and flung up-field with long sticks pulled from the ribs of the saguaro cactus. The start is much like the game lacrosse-another Indian game, it begins almost like a rugby scrum–and then off down field, very little is out of bound. These women celebrate this age old tradition all afternoon long with teams chasing each other up and down the playing field, the ebb and flow, the eventual goal and high-fives all around, losers too. The Pow Wow begins with the traditional Gourd Dance and breaks down into male, female, fancy, Plains categories featuring the finest in Pow Wow and Drum traditions. Just off the mid-way, the crowd not to photograph are the Yaqui Deer dancers nor can you record them with smartphones. The Yaqui Band features a combination of home-made instruments which accompany the dancers, one wears the head of a small deer atop the head, the main dancers each wore a mask to fill out the cast for their dance.

The Santa Rosa Shell Dancers

The Santa Rosa Shell Dancers


Earlier the Santa Rosa traditional dancers displayed their dance abilities, wearing their eye-catching shell-leg chaps, made from the shell carried from the Sea of Cortez by their ancestors who later traded the shell to Hohokam in the Salt-Gila River area for their cotton. The Tohono’s Hohokam ancestors valued the shell as a sign of rank, wealth, and much of it was fashioned into jewelry, like bracelets, necklaces, and leggings with shell leg tinklers for dancers The Tohono ancestors had a prehistoric salt trail across the vast waterless Sonoran Desert, across what is today’s US-MEXICO Border and into the blackened landscape of the Sierra de Pinacate lavafields, before crossing the enormous star sand dunes of the Grande Deserto for ten miles before reaching the Gulf of California where they harvested the precious salt and processed the shell, carrying home only what they needed to make jewelry to trade. Traditions have lasted thousands of years in the lands west of Tucson, they exist today and they will thrive tomorrow. The Tohono Tribe are gracious hosts and they welcome young and old, Indian or not as visitors to their Rodeo and Fair. It surprises me how few Tucsonans take advantage and visit the annual Tohono gathering, it surprises me more how few Tucson businesses sponsor, advertise or even acknowledge the tribe and its good work and its people of sterling, ageless character who have been our faithful neighbor for centuries.

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SOUTHWEST PHOTOBANK GALLERY FOR MORE SELLS AZ RODEO PHOTOS CLICK HERE ….

2013 RODEO SCHEDULE…CLICK HERE

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ARIZONA STATE of the STATE 2013 SPEECH by GOVERNOR JAN BREWER HIGHLIGHTS THE DIVIDE BETWEEN RICH, POOR, RED, BLUE AND MEXICAN, TASK FORCE TO STUDY BORDER SMUGGLING, SCHOOL FUNDS and AZ-FED LAND

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ARIZONA GOV. JAN BREWER ADDRESSES THE ARIZONA HOUSE AND SENATE IN A JOINT SESSION FOR THE ARIZONA STATE OF THE STATE 2013 SPEECH.

ARIZONA GOV. JAN BREWER ADDRESSES THE ARIZONA HOUSE AND SENATE IN A JOINT SESSION FOR THE ARIZONA STATE OF THE STATE 2013 SPEECH.


ARIZONA GOV. JAN BREWER

ARIZONA GOV.JAN BREWER

Monday’s festivities were scheduled to include the swearing in of 30 Senate members and 60 members of the House of Representatives, keynote speakers and Gov. Jan Brewer’s State of the State speech.

Arizona’s newly retired U.S. Sen. Jon Kyl kicked off opening day of the 51st Arizona Legislature by urging state lawmakers to partner with the federal government on two of his legacy issues, immigration and water rights.

But some minutes into the speech, Kyl, 70, cut short his remarks and left, saying he didn’t feel well.

RETIRING SENATOR JON KYL ADDRESSES THE JOINT SESSION

RETIRING U.S. SEN. JON KYL ADDRESSES THE SESSION


REPUBLICAN JON KYL


REPUBLICAN JON KYL’S CONTRIBUTOR LIST

Kyl said there is a history of mixed success between Arizona and the federal government, but he urged the two levels of government to keep working together.

He defended Senate Bill 1070, even as he acknowledged the immigration-enforcement bill had some flaws.

“I think it was wrong for some elected officials and media to attack Arizona for trying to do something about it,” Kyl said.


Text of Gov. Brewer’s State of the State Address

[caption id="attachment_6348" align="alignleft" width="285"]ARIZONA GOV. JAN BREWER ARIZONA GOV. JAN BREWER

The highlights of the address are the governor seeking more CPS workers, more funding for schools, including a pay-for-performance plan, reform the sales tax code, creation of a few task forces including one to manage federal lands in Arizona (which the BLM, Forest Service and National Park Service will have something to say about) and one to combat human trafficking, a pledge to do something about immigration reform after the border is “secure” and the biggee – to expand Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act to 133 percent of the federal poverty line.

All except the human trafficking and the state natural resources task forces will receive considerable resistance from her Republican colleagues who still control the House and Senate.

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id="attachment_6332" align="aligncenter" width="950"]THE SAN XAVIER DEL BAC COLOR GUARD INSTALLED THE FLAG FOR THE OPENING 51ST SESSION OF THE AZ LEGISLATURE. THE SAN XAVIER DEL BAC COLOR GUARD INSTALLED THE FLAG FOR THE OPENING OF THE 51ST AZ LEGISLATURE.[/caption]

FRESHMAN VICTORIA STEELE D9

FRESHMAN VICTORIA STEELE D9

MINORITY SPEAKER CAMPBELL WITH JOE ARPAIO

MINORITY SPEAKER CAMPBELL WITH JOE ARPAIO

This is Arizona’s legacy. We were the last of the continental states … carved from rugged country … a territorial landscape equally harsh and beautiful. Arizona’s challenges are great, but not greater than our capacity to meet them…Gov. Jan Brewer 2013


BREWER EXPANDS MEDICAID

ARIZONA LEGISLATURE WEBPAGE

ARIZONA LEGISLATIVE ROOSTER

FOR MORE PHOTOS FROM THE ARIZONA 51ST LEGISLATURE
CLICK HERE TO VISIT SOUTHWESTPHOTOBANK.COM GALLERIES

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SECOND ANNIVERSARY of JANUARY EIGHTH SHOOTING LAUNCHES GIFFORDS POLITICAL ACTION PACK TO FUND and BACK LAWMAKERS AGAINST THE RICH GUN LOBBY

2ND ANNIVERSARY OF JAN 8TH SHOOTING IN TUCSON

2ND ANNIVERSARY OF JAN 8TH SHOOTING IN TUCSON

PKW_0720ELEANOR PERCELLO WIPES AWAY TEARS SHED FOR ALL THE SHOOTING VICTIMS (RIGHT) MANY JUST STOPPED TO PAY THEIR RESPECTS, OTHERS HAD BELLS TO RING

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CLICK HERE FOR SOUTHWESTPHOTOBANK’S GALLERIES FOR MORE SHRINE AND MEMORIAL PHOTOS

One of thousand items boxed up for the permanent shooting achieve. The words to John Lennon's song "Imagine".

One of thousand items boxed up for the permanent achieve. The words from John Lennon’s song “Imagine”.

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Shrines at University Medical Center

Shrines at University Medical Center

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Tears were shed Tuesday as Tucsonans remembered the shooting two years ago that killed six and wounded nineteen. Bells rang throughout Tucson at 10:10am, where ever folks were-they stopped or went outside where churches and schools rang their bells, nineteen times, all in memory of Tucson victims and the hundreds victimized throughout the United States in eleven attacks since the Tucson shooting two years ago. Eleanor Percello, from Marana, wiped tears away Tuesday morning at the Safeway at Ina and Oracle Roads where the shooter killed nine year old Christina Greene, Gabriel Zimmerman 30, and Judge M. Roll, Dorothy Morris, 76; Dorwan Stoddard, 76; and Phyllis Schneck, 79. After the shooting in Tucson thousands visited the shrines and attended the vigils, each has shed a tear, you can’t help but feel touched by all the love, concern and sentiment expressed, “Let a new era of love begin with me” wrote one, “from this day forward I will…” said another. One was inspired to paint John Lennon’s words from “IMAGINE” on flagstone, including “Imagine all the people living Life in Peace”. President Obama came to Tucson and grieved. Since then Congress has done nothing.

FIGHTING GUNS: USA TODAY OP/ED by GABBY GIFFORDS and MARK KELLY

For some the event was life-changing…certainly no lives have changed more than Congresswomen Gabby Giffords who was shot in the Tucson shooting, and her husband, Mark Kelly. Today, Mark and Gabby announced “Americans for Responsible Solutions” an action pack to raise money to combat the gun lobby they say.

GABBY and MARK

GABBY and MARK

In a second anniversary OpEd in USA TODAY, Kelly and Giffords writes Americans for Responsible Solutions, which they launched on January 8th, to invite people from around the country to join a national conversation about gun violence prevention, ARS will raise the funds necessary to balance the influence of the gun lobby, and will line up squarely behind leaders who stand for what’s right. Until now says ARS, the gun lobby’s political contributions, advertising and lobbying have dwarfed spending from anti-gun violence groups. No longer. With Americans for Responsible Solutions engaging millions of people about ways to reduce gun violence and funding political activity nationwide, legislators will no longer have reason to fear the gun lobby. Other efforts such as improving mental health care and opposing illegal guns are essential, but as gun owners and survivors of gun violence, we have a unique message for Americans.

We have experienced too much death and hurt to remain idle. Our response to the Newtown massacre must consist of more than regret, sorrow and condolence. The children of Sandy Hook Elementary School and all victims of gun violence deserve fellow citizens and leaders who have the will to prevent gun violence in the future.

I was shot in the head two years ago today. Since then, my extensive rehabilitation has brought excitement and gratitude to our family. But time and time again, our joy has been diminished by new, all too familiar images of death on television: the breaking news alert, stunned witnesses blinking away tears over unspeakable carnage, another community in mourning. America has seen an astounding 11 mass shootings since a madman used a semiautomatic pistol with an extended ammunition clip to shoot me and kill six others. Gun violence kills more than 30,000 Americans annually.

Dear fellow Americans,

Two years ago today, a mentally ill young man shot me in the head, killed six of my constituents, and wounded 12 others. My recovery has been tough, but I’ve worked very hard, and I feel lucky to be with my family and have this opportunity to do something important for my country.

Since that terrible day, America has seen 11 more mass shootings, but no plan from Congress to reduce gun violence. After the massacre of 20 children and six of their teachers at Sandy Hook Elementary, however, it’s clear: This time must be different. As moderate, gun owners and victims of gun violence, we know there are some common sense things this country can do to reduce gun violence and protect responsible gun ownership. And we’re not alone.

CONGRESSWOMEN GABBY GIFFORDS

CONGRESSWOMEN GABBY GIFFORDS

The vast majority of Americans – including three-quarters of NRA members – support efforts that promote responsible gun ownership. But a gun lobby driven by an extreme ideological fringe has used big money and influence to stop Congress from acting.

That’s why, today, we are inviting you to join us as we launch Americans for Responsible Solutions. Our leaders must take action to reduce gun violence and protect responsible gun ownership. Please encourage your family and friends to join the conversation by sharing Americans for Responsible Solutions now.

We can’t take back the bullet that went through my head or fill the 20 empty beds in a Newtown neighborhood, but we can come together right now to prevent future tragic shootings wrote Gabby Giffords and husband, Mark Kelly.

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THE GUN FIGHTERS: GABBY GIFFORDS, VP BIDEN, MAYOR BLOOMBERG ON THE COVER OF TIME MAGAZINE

LAURA ROBERTS BELIEVES ONLY GABBY GIFFORDS CAN WORK A MIRACLE ON OUR GUN LAWS … CLICK HERE


MOTHER JONES GUIDE TO MASS SHOOTINGS IN THE UNITED STATES….CLICK HERE

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TUCSON’S NEW YEAR FROSTING, WINTER STORM BRINGS RAIN, SNOW TO SOUTHERN ARIZONA

Catalina State park received close to an inch of rain and flurries of snow.

Catalina State park received close to an inch of rain and flurries of snow.

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Grazing in Snow

Grazing in Snow

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Southern Arizona’s Sky Islands are frosted over for the 2013 New Year and new storms promise to spread snow throughout the border regions of Arizona. Forecasts predicts more, Bisbee has 9 inches, Naco has 7 inches, Sierra Vista has 3 inches and Mount Lemmon’s hwy is now open to four-wheel drive, and is a good place to screw up a nice 4×4, all that traction on ice…?
“It’s beautiful”, says a photographer at Catalina State Park, who has pulled over off the roadway to make a photo. Another lady stopped and rolled down her window, if the ranger sees you stopped on the shoulder, he will ticket you for being off road. Thanks I say as I pull away, that’s total bullshit I think.

VISIT SOUTHWEST PHOTOBANK TUCSON NEW YEAR’S SNOW……….CLICK HERE

CATALINA HIGHWAY THROUGH ORACLE ROAD IN SNOW FLURRIES

CATALINA HIGHWAY THROUGH ORACLE ROAD IN SNOW FLURRIES

SNOWBALLS ARE MEANT FOR LITTLE BROTHERS

SNOWBALLS ARE MEANT FOR LITTLE BROTHERS

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END OF THE WORLD COMING ON SOLSTICE ? WHITE BUFFALO WOMEN SAYS LOVE THE WORLD AND EACH OTHER LOVE WILL RETURN BALANCE TO OUR WORLD !

THE END IS COMING

Much has been said about the upcoming end of the World on December 21st! During the election driving through north central Arizona I heard a Christian talk show blame it om Obama, since then Conservative are convinced a black president is truly the end of us all. FEAR…seems to be the message coming from a broad segment of the population, 24 hour cable news keep the most pressing world events center-stage. Right vs Left battles over your health care. Christian folks stabbing people after provoking them in the first place, all in the name of saving newborn. Mass shootings are on a record track and we have just experienced one of the worst in our country’s history, twenty innocent children gunned down. In a sense we find our World tilting out of alignment. In my view it is less a gun control problem than one Ronald Regan began when he mainstreamed the mentally ill, reducing services and forcing a new homeless revolution, mainly by people who can not exist within the framework of society as we know it. This is no small number and because the government and state’s have no funding to provide services for the mentally ill and homeless a terrible stigma has grown up around both the person who lives on the street and those Americans battling their inner demons.

EARTH

Universal health care is the beginning! In the decades to come it will make a difference. Still we are bedeviled by Global Warming and in some places steps are being taken to battle our changing world. New York and New Jersey is trying to rebuild in a way that protects the regions worst hit by Hurricane Sandy, the Gulf of Mexico has received some expensive first aid from the BP Oil Spill and the gulf is mending slowly and is being watched, studied closely.

Banks, lobbyists have run rampant, like the money changers in the Temples, they have corrupted everything they touched. Mostly law makers and their staffs, their money has bought influence at the expense of the public welfare and still they battle for de-regulation–it is one constant attack on all fronts, whittling down laws and clawing regs in place to protect the health and best interests of all Americans. Collective bargaining is a thing of the past.

WHY THE WORLD WILL NOT END IN DECEMBER 2012

Join us in person at SETI Institute in Mountain View. David Morrison, Ed Krupp and Andrew Fraknoi will discuss the topic of the end of the Mayan Calendar in 2012 and how this has been treated by the media. The negative effect on the public of this millennial memo will also be explored, Speakers: David Morrison, NASA Ames Research Center. Ed Krupp, Griffith Observatory, Southern California. Andrew Fraknoi, Foothill College.

The SETI Institute is a not-for-profit organization whose mission is to “explore, understand and explain the origin, nature and prevalence of life in the universe”. SETI stands for the “search for extraterrestrial intelligence”. One program is the use of both radio and optical telescopes to search for deliberate signals from extraterrestrial intelligence. Other research, pursued within the Carl Sagan Center for the Study of Life in the Universe, includes the discovery of extrasolar planets, potentials for life on Mars and other bodies within the Solar System, and the habitability of the galaxy. Photo taken near Socorro, New Mexico.

Listening Ears 2

So why in this time of all these horrible pressures on our way of life do we possibly believe America and the rest of the World, Europe, Africa, the Middle East can pull out of this deadly spiral, pull up and level off. For beginners, the Mayan calendar says so it goes on and besides what is reported, it continues. Secondly, there is now a level of optimism across our country that conveys a hopefulness, in spite of all the Republicans, acting as if the world in going to end. Mitts dog will get more road trips, besides, the price of gas has been dropping ever since they started investigating why it was so high. It wouldn’t be fair if the world can to an end now. NORAD, the folks that track space junk, satellites, incoming asteroids, comets, Death stars, like in Independence Day they already had a picture. NORAD says there is nothing on the horizon that would bring an end our world! So with the world tilting off its axis and when many believe it is spinning out of control and when some believe it is all over. I’m here to say — wait a minute. Yes, this World has lost some of its beauty, it is an ugly world and many people I know say the future will not be nearly as prosperous and promising for their children, as their generation enjoyed. Maybe or maybe not, my view that has always depended upon the individual and what they were willing to work for.

So besides all the hopeful reasons I have already conveyed to you, I have two words more for you White Buffaloes!

WHITE BUFFALO

WHITE BUFFALO

ARIZONA'S BEARIZONA HAS WHITE BUFFALO

ARIZONA’S BEARIZONA HAS WHITE BUFFALO

News of the calf spread quickly through the Native American community because its birth fulfilled a 2,000­ year ­old prophecy of northern Plains Indians. Joseph Chasing Horse, traditional leader of the Lakota nation, explains that 2,000 years ago a young woman who first appeared in the shape of a white buffalo gave the Lakota’s ancestors a sacred pipe and sacred ceremonies and made them guardians of the Black Hills. Before leaving, WHITE BUFFALO WOMEN prophesied that one day she would return to purify the world, bringing back spiritual balance and harmony; the birth of a white buffalo calf would be a sign that her return was at hand.

“The White Buffalo is a blessing from the Great Spirit. “It’s a sign”. These white buffaloes are showing us that everything is going to be okay.”

The White Buffalo Woman showed the people the right way to pray, the right words and the right gestures. She taught them how to sing the pipe­-filling song and how to lift the pipe up to the sky, toward Grandfather, and down toward Grandmother Earth, to Uncie, and then to the four directions of the universe. “With this holy pipe,” she said, “you will walk like a living prayer. With your feet resting upon the earth and the pipestem reaching into the sky, your body forms a living bridge between the Sacred Beneath and the Sacred Above. Wakan Tanka smiles upon us, because now we are as one: earth, sky, all living things, the two-legged, the four-­legged, the winged ones, the trees, the grasses. Together with the people, they are all related, one family. The pipe holds them all together.”

“Look at this bowl,” said the White Buffalo Woman. “Its stone represents the buffalo, but also the flesh and blood of the red man. The buffalo represents the universe and the four directions, because he stands on four legs, for the four ages of man. The buffalo was put in the west by Wakan Tanka at the making of the world, to hold back the waters. Every year he loses one hair, and in every one of the four ages he loses a leg. The Sacred Hoop will end when all the hair and legs of the great buffalo are gone, and the water comes back to cover the Earth.WhiteBuffaloCalfWomanPeacePipe

The wooden stem of this chanunpa stands for all that grows on the earth. Twelve feathers hanging from where the stem­ the backbone­ joins the bowl­ the skull­ are from Wanblee Galeshka, the spotted eagle, the very sacred who is the Great Spirit’s messenger and the wisest of all cry out to Tunkashila . Look at the bowl: engraved in it are seven circles of various sizes. They stand for the seven ceremonies you will practice with this pipe, and for the Ocheti Shakowin , the seven sacred campfires of our Lakota nation.”

The White Buffalo Woman then spoke to the women, telling them that it was the work of their hands and the fruit of their bodies which kept the people alive. “You are from the mother earth,” she told them. “What you are doing is as great as what warriors do.” And therefore the sacred pipe is also something that binds men and women together in a circle of love. It is the one holy object in the making of which both men and women have a hand. The men carve the bowl and make the stem; the women decorate it with bands of colored porcupine quills. When a man takes a wife, they both hold the pipe at the same time and red cloth is wound around their hands, thus tying them together for life.

And when she promised to return again, she made some prophesies at that time ….One of those prophesies was that the birth of a white buffalo calf would be a sign that it would be near the time when she would return again to purify the world. What she meant by that was that she would bring back harmony again and balance, spiritually.

The woman gave the people a sacred pipe, taught them how to use it to pray and told the Sioux about the value of the buffalo. Before she left them, the woman said she would return, the legend says.

As she walked away she turned into a young white buffalo.

The return of White Buffalo Calf Woman marks the arrival of a new era of reconciliation among races and respect for the Earth. (excerpts borrowed from an article in the Chicago Tribune by Richard Wronski)


SEE BIRTH OF WHITE BUFFALO
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LteJdKp54yg

BIRTH OF WHITE BUFFALO FULFILLS TRIBAL PROPHESY…CLICK HERE


“It’s more of a blessing from the Great Spirit.” “It’s a sign. This white buffalo is showing us that everything is going to be okay.”

WHITE BUFFALO WOMEN

WHITE BUFFALO WOMEN

SACRED NINE COMMANDMENTS FROM THE CREATOR TO NATIVE PEOPLE AT THE TIME OF CREATION

1. Take care of Mother Earth and the other colors of man.

2. Respect this Mother Earth and creation.

3. Honor all life, and support that honor.

4. Be grateful from the heart for all life. It is through life that there is survival. Thank the Creator at all times for all life.

5. Love, and express that love.

6. Be humble. Humility is the gift of wisdom and understanding.

7. Be kind with one’s self and with others.

8. Share feelings and personal concerns and commitments.

9. Be honest with one’s self and with others. Be responsible for these sacred instructions and share them with other nations.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR CIVIL DISCOURSE…CLICK HERE

SAINT KATERI TEKAKWITHA

SAINT KATERI TEKAKWITHA

WORDS TO LIVE BY …. IT’S A NEW YEAR ! WHY NOT A NEW WORLD !

WHITE BUFFALO WOMEN HAS SHOWN THE WORLD HOW TO LOAD THE PIPE THAT BRINGS HARMONY TO THE WORLD. AFTER WASHINGTON AND COLORADO PASSED NEW MARIJUANA LAWS RELAXING THE STIGMA OF POSSESSION AND SMOKING THE WEED THERE IS LITTLE DOUBT IN MY MIND WHAT THEY WILL BURNING IN THAT PIPE.

This summer the Vatican ordained its first Native American Saint, Saint Kateri Tekakwitha, was canonized on 10/21/2012 by Pope Benedict XVI, two months to the day before the World Ends. In his remarks the Pope said he hoped the love of Saint Tekakwitha would bring together all Native Americans and all people. He “hoped she would be the great unifier”

SEE PHOTO GALLERY ON CELEBRATION OF SAINT KATERI TEKAKWITHA AT SAN XAVIER CLICK HERE….

SEE THIS END OF THE WORLD BLOG ON PROTECTING YOUR FAMILY FROM ZOMBIES….CLICK HERE

WHY THE WORLD DIDN’T END from the National Geographic Society who studies and reports on Maya traditions…

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SPANISH ENTRADA SEARCHES FOR CITY OF GOLD, CORONADO FINDS AMERICAN SOUTH WEST, SEES LITTLE TO VALUE EVEN LESS TO CARRY OFF!

ERIC THING and Associates retraced Coronado's trail along the San Pedro River, dressed as the Expedition would have dressed.

THE SPANISH ENTRADA AND CORONADO VISITED MANY OF THE RIO GRANDE PUEBLOS. THE TAOS PUEBLO (above) WAS VISITED BY OUT-RIDERS AFTER DEFEATING CIBOLA OR TODAY’S ZUNI PUEBLO IN NEW MEXICO.

Crossing into the US from Mexico at this spot in the San Rafael Valley, the Franciscan friar FRAY MARCUS de NIZA with his Moorish guide, Estevan, entered from Mexico at this spot in Arizona’s San Rafael Valley, where this concrete cross stands as a memorial of decades of Spanish rule in North America which was followed by a “tidal wave of white men”. De Niza’s journey ended South West prehistory and marked the beginning of written history.

Beside this dusty dirt road only a short distance north from Lochiel, Az, stands the 20 foot cross with a metal plaque that proclaims “On this spot FRAY MARCUS de NIZA entered this Valley of San Rafael, as Commissary of the Franciscan Order and a Delegate of the Viceroy of Mexico, de Niza entered Arizona the first European west of the Rockies on April 12, 1539. Here began the friar’s historic journey to explore the American Southwest, his journey ignited a decade of searching by conquistadors for the gold and riches they hoped to exist in the legendary “Seven Cities of Cibola”.[caption id="attachment_5114" align="aligncenter" width="950"]Marks de Niza Entry Marks de Niza Entry

Spain’s journey into Arizona and New Mexico was controversial then and remains controversial today. Some researchers argue de Niza never made his journey, he only pretended to have seen New Mexico. Some historians say de Niza faked the report in conspiracy with Viceroy Mendoza to encourage the conquest of the North. The friar’s trip did set off a contest between the governor of Cuba and Viceroy Mendoza Governor of New Spain, both sent their champions, Conquistadors Coronado and De Soto were chosen, edging out others, Francisco Vázquez de Coronado went through Arizona and Hernando de De Soto landed in Florida, both sought to find untold riches and make them all rich.

Ironically, at the time of the march to Cibola (Zuni N.M.) and Quivira (Kansas) in 1541, Hernando de Soto’s army was probing west from Florida. In May of 1541, at the same time Coronado was in Texas and starting north to Kansas, de Soto was crossing to the west bank of the Mississippi River. The armies may have passed within some hundreds of miles of each other. While Coronado was in Kansas and marching back to the Albuquerque area, De Soto was probing west of the Mississippi, where he died on the Red River in April of 1542. If the two armies had met up, they might have considered their expeditions more successful.

CONQUISTADORS CLIMBED INTO THE SKY CITY OF ACOMA, THEY WISHED THEY HADN’T.

NATURAL WATER CATCHMENTS ARRESTED RUNOFF ON THE MESA FLOOR

A POTTERY TRADITION EXISTS IN MOST PUEBLOS.

NORTH CENTRAL NEW MEXICO

De Niza’s visit to Arizona’s opened the door for Spanish exploration that defined the size, the people and the nature of today’s American West. FRAY MARCUS de NIZA, found himself about 15 miles east of what is today’s Nogales, Arizona and Sonora as their horses picked their trail through the rich Arizona grasslands. De Niza was guided by Estevan, an Moor slave who had survived the same decade of slavery and walking through Texas to Mexico after being ship-wrecked off the Florida coast with the Spanish mariner named Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca who reported to the Viceroy of Mexico the riches of Cibola. The Viceroy sent the Friar de Niza and Estevan to learn the truth about “Cibola”, was it made from gold or wasn’t it? Estevan knew from his travels the Indian of the time perceived “Cibola” as the “greatest thing in the world”, so-the servant said. Survival had taught him how to excite the average Indian village, the large charismatic black man who wore tinkers and led a large entourage of slaves and women whom he had collected. Estevan had learned it was better to be the point of the spear ahead of the main expedition finding water and probing their path for guides and information, rather than playing the role of a slave. Estevan was charged to send back runners with crosses, if news was promising about riches ahead send a big cross, he had been told, if chances were poor, then send a small cross. Estevan decided to promote his own agenda sending back crosses that got progressively larger. Estevan was the original Kokopelli, he captivated the locals, wowed the maidens, had a few and moved on to the next village before the larger expedition arrived.

FIREARMS, HORSES AND CROSSBOWS TOOK A TOLL ON THE INDIAN

De Niza, upon his first return to Mexico City from Cibola, he had reported finding “good and prosperous lands” others soon twisted that translation into a new land of riches, equal to the wealth of gold, silver and gemstones, taken from the Aztec and Inca civilizations of Mexico and South America. Cibola was soon thought to be where “trees hung with golden bells and people whose pots and pans were beaten gold”, so with that promise of riches, finding soldiers and patrons to fund the journey became easy, everyone wanted a piece of the action. De Niza’s companion Estevan de Dorantes was killed at Cíbola, as de Niza watched from afar, but from that range the friar affirmed that the “grand city” report was true. The Friar’s report had inspired Francisco Vázquez de Coronado to make his famous expedition to Zuni Pueblo, using Fray Marcos as his guide; their journey had many hardships: thirst and hunger, many died and most were left penny-less. So it’s an understatement the expedition had a great disappointment, when they had finally saw Cibola for themselves, Coronado then sent Friar de Niza back to Mexico City for his own protection. Fray Marcos returned in shame and became the provincial superior of his order in Mexico and performed the highest office of the Franciscans Order in Mexico before dying in 1558.

In “Cities of Gold” by Doug Preston 1992 Simon/Schuster narrates the rich history of the American South West as the author retraces the Route of Coronado from the US-Mexico Border through a very rugged Arizona and into a waterless New Mexico. Preston and with his cowboy/photographer/artist/sidekick, Walter, with four horses found the trip, life-imperiling as well as life-changing. Another author, Paul Wellman wrote in his book; “Glory, God and Gold” that “Every Spaniard in the expedition” he wrote “would plunge his arms elbow-deep in gold ingots before he returned,” that’s why not a peso came from the King and each participant paid what they could. Captains paid $55,000 pesos, average guys paid $35,000 pesos and Coronado himself paid $85,000 pesos, taking a loan out on his wife’s estate. In preparation for this journey, Coronado had taken seven slaves four men and three women, others took their wives, children and companions.

Scholars say there were 2,000 in the expedition, with 67 plus European soldiers-45 fellas carried European metal helmets, 1300 natives were from central and western Mexico, some were servants, wranglers and herdsmen so writes Richard Flint in the Kiva article entitled “What they never told you about the Coronado Expedition”. He points out there were 19 crossbow, 25 arquebusiers and additional slaves to tend the 1,000 extra horses, 500 head of cattle, and more than 5,000 sheep was taken to feed the expedition. These folks were not trailblazers-they followed well established paths, each village they passed they would enlist guides to lead the way to the next water hole, to make introductions at the next village and to show the Spanish the road to the Seven Cities of Gold.

The beginning of History in the American West arrived with the Spanish exploration of the American South West.

Just a few years earlier the chosen champion of the Cuban governor, Conquistador Hernando de Soto, who learned the Indian slave trade in South America. There the Spanish looted temples and ransacked graves for their mortuary offerings. Finally De Soto captured the Inca emperor who offered him a room 22′ by 17′ stacked 9′ to the ceiling with gold ornaments, vases, goblets and statues plus another smaller room filled twice over with silver for his freedom. De Soto accepted the gold and silver treasure, still killed the king and soon returned to Spain and became a favorite in the King’s court to whom he loaned money and soon was given the license to explore Florida. In return the King was to receive “one-fifth of all spoils of battle, one-fifth of any precious metal taken from the ground and one-tenth of everything taken from graves. De Soto was to finance the entire expedition, at its end he would received 50,000 acres of his choice and an annual salary of $60,000, in return he would pacify all the natives, and provide the necessary priests and friars needed to convert them.

DESOTO; Followed the footsteps of his heroes, Balboa and Ponce de Leon….

CORONADO: Freely joined the chase for gold and riches ….

Meanwhile in Mexico, Viceroy Mendoza ordered 29 year old Francisco Vazques de Coronado to explore “Nuevo Tierra” and to bring back all the treasure he discovers.

EL MORRO NATIONAL MONUMENT STOOD OUT FROM THE FLAT LAND AND BECAME A BEACON FOR TRAVELERS. CORONADO DIDN’T LEAVE HIS JOHN HANCOCK, BUT HE DID VISIT

Once reaching Zuni, groups broke off one went to the Hopi Villages, another to the Grand Canyon and another to the Rio Grande Valley to claim those lands for the Spanish empire. One group of explorers pushed on to the Colorado River hoping to be re-supplied by ship but they found a note saying their supplies had come and gone. Sore, sick, hungry, constantly looking for water and upset by the lack of riches, Coronado strayed farther eastward with dreams of another unconquered province named Quivera. His expedition went through the plains of Kansas past today’s Liberal Kansas, in hopes of finding yet another Aztec Civilization rich with gold and silver. The Spanish told themselves they had come to North America “to serve God and His King, to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich, as all men desire to do”. Hernando de Soto, and the Mendoza expedition led by Coronado, beat out several other conquistadors: Cortes, Beltran de Guzman and Pedro de Alvarado, all of whom wished to establish lives of “ease and honor” by “performing feats of war”. De Soto and Coronado motivated the native Indian along their way to join them, many did, they hoped to take prisoners for themselves, and to become slave holders. Everyone had an angle how this journey was going to make them rich. The conquistadors were tough, disciplined and ruthless, their weapons outmatched the stone age weapons of the Indians who were no match against European arms and tactics.

The native Americans believed the Spanish horses were supernatural creatures.

But it was the horses that carried the battle every time in the today’s West, rock art and intaglio exist that document the first meeting of the horse with North American Indians. In Mexico and South America the Aztec and Inca had fought in formation and were outclassed by the warriors of Europe, but the native Americans of the north soon learned stealth and avoided open combat. Their skilled archers could drive an arrow through armor. the crossbow and musket proved useless while the sword, lance and infantry was very deadly in close combat.

This rock art in southern Utah commemorates the first time the two meet.

This rock art in southern Utah commemorates the first time the indian and the horse meet.


So eighty years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock. Spanish Explorers visited Kansas: Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, seeking gold in New Mexico, was told of Quivera where “people’s pots and pans were beaten gold”. With 30 picked horsemen and a Franciscan Friar, Coronado marched “north by the needle” from the Texas panhandle until he reached Kansas. Here he found no gold, but a country he described as “the best I have ever seen for producing all the products of Spain.” The expedition entered present Kansas near Liberal and moved northeastward across the Arkansas River to what is now Rice and McPherson counties perhaps probing to present day Lawrence near the Kansas River before turning back. The guide, they called the Turk, confessed he had deceived the Spaniards and one night he went into his tent and the next morning when they broke camp he left only a dirt mound. He was strangled, buried and forgotten. For 25 days in the summer of 1541 the Turk had led Coronado among the grass-hut villages of the Quivira Indians, hoping to lose Coronado and men in the tall grass and waterless plains.
PECOS PUEBLO stood at the Cross Roads of the Great Plains and the Rio Grande Pueblo Communities.

PECOS PUEBLO stood at the Cross Roads of the Great Plains and the Rio Grande Pueblo Communities.

After this month spent exploring central Kansas, the expedition disappointed in their quest for riches were still impressed by the land itself. Coronado’s Lieutenant Juan Jaramillo, wrote: “It is a hilly country, but has table-lands, plains, and charming rivers… I am of the belief that it will be very productive of all sorts of commodities. According to legend, Seymour Rogers, the first settler in the mid-1880’s, was said to have been “mighty liberal” with water from his well, from that came the name Liberal Kansas established in 1888, on the northwest border of Texas.

Statue of the Conquistador Coronado stands next to a traffic circle in Liberal, Kansas near where the Spanish entered from Texas. JOHN MADSEN, BELOW

CORONADO AND QUIVIRA

In August 2004, they launched the Coronado Project, which expanded on John Madsen’s idea of asking local residents to help solve the mystery of the expedition’s route. With the assistance of Don Burgess—a former general manager of Tucson’s Public Broadcasting System television station—this outreach and public education project involved the creation of a video on the Coronado Expedition and mailed, free of charge, to hundreds of local residents; a series of public lectures; and four Coronado Roadshows in Wilcox and Springerville, Arizona and also in Lordsburg and Reserve, New Mexico.

The exact route that the Coronado Expedition took between Sonora and the Zuni Pueblos is currently unknown writes John Madsen, curator at the Arizona State Museum. He writes some have surmised that the trail led through Arizona, as far west as the Casa Grande Ruin, before turning northeast into the White Mountains region. Others, like historian Herbert E. Bolton, suggest a route along the San Pedro River, turning northeast below Benson, crossing the Gila River near Bylas, and passing near White River and Springerville before descending into the Zuni region. Madsen prefers the path similar to that proposed by archaeologist Carroll Riley. It traverses the country on what is now the Arizona–New Mexico state line, following the San Francisco River. Spanish accounts as early as 1747 reveal considerable use of the drainage by Zunis and Apaches. In 1795, Sonorans viewed the San Francisco River area as a potential trade route linking them with the Pueblo of Zuni and Santa Fe area pueblos like Pecos and Taos Pueblos.

Madsen teamed up with a Public Broadcast Station and launched a search for clues of where the Spanish had been targeting areas along their suspected route. Many historians and archaeologists along the route have tackled their piece of the mystery, many adding to the research, Madsen “had a hunch that the best source of information would come from the ranching communities along the Arizona–New Mexico border. These people know the land, and generations of family members have covered most of this dirt on horseback. The end result were 33 Spanish colonial period or Mexican historic artifacts like period spurs, coins, and horseshoes. Chain mail was take from a site in Kansas….more clues appeared.


Hartmann Map for Tracking the Expedition’s Route: Sleuthing for Clues and Artifacts

For over 100 years, the exact route of Coronado has been an American mystery. Generations of scholars have tried to retrace the steps of the army from their descriptions of villages, rivers, mountains, and native communities. National commissions have grappled with the problem of designating a “Coronado Trail” that tourists could follow, but clues were sparse, and politics raised its head when various factions tried to claim parts of the route for their state. Because we don’t know just where they were, it is tantalizingly hard to interpret the Coronado chronicles’ descriptions of native villages and other sites they visited.

GREENLEE COUNTY ARIZONA

In our lifetimes, many potential Coronado sites are being destroyed by urban growth, vandalism, and plowing of fields for agriculture. However, if amateur sleuths report possible Spanish artifacts, it may still be possible to locate more of Coronado’s campsites and document exactly where the army went. Recent discoveries have found Coronado campsites near Albuquerque and another in the Texas panhandle at Blanco Canyon both help to pin down the expedition’s route. See the web page on helping scholars locate Coronado sites….

Archaeologists William K.Hartmann, his wife Gayle and Richard Flint have worked tirelessly to sleuth out the route of the Coronado Expedition being guided by de Niza who the year before had seen Cibola from a distance. They found he might have followed the Rio Sonora to the river’s headwaters and then crossed the Cananea grasslands for four days past Arizape picking up the San Pedro River North turning east toward the Wilcox Playa North past present day Safford or the present day Sulfur Springs Valley crossing the Gila River cresting the Mogollon Rim past Point of Pines. William and Gayle Hartmann sees them moving east from the San Pedro, stopping at Turkey Creek in the Chiricahua’s then moving east through Apache Pass via Portal and into New Mexico and eventually into Texas. For more explanation visit their website….http://www.psi.edu/epo/coronado/coronadosjourney.html

WEST TURKEY CREEK, IN THE CHIRICAHUA MOUNTAIN RANGE, ONE PROPOSED STOP ALONG CORONADO’S ROUTE.


REPORTED DISCOVERY OF CHICHILTICALE
The most exciting development is the apparent discovery of the long lost Coronado camp site at the Chichilticale New Mexican exploration geologist Nugent Brasher devoted several years to this problem. With brilliant deduction, mapping, and hard work, he began metal detecting surveys at several water-source sites he reported finding an iron cross bow point and other possible fragments from the Kuykendall ruin, a large pueblo ruin site at the foot of the Chiricahuas. The site appears definitely to be a the first Coronado camp site known in Arizona, and almost certainly is the Chichilticale ruin.

• ONGOING EXCAVATIONS AT CHICHILTICALE Brasher has set up a web site at www.chichilticale.com to record progress with the survey and excavations at the Chichilticale site. Excavations are continuing by Brasher and archaeologist Deni Seymour. Two more cross bow bolt heads have been shown on her web site that details excavation plans and progress, at http://www.seymourharlan.com/default.htm

• NEW BOOK FROM RICHARD FLINT In 2008, Richard Flint published a popular-level account of the expedition, “No Settlement No Conquest: A History of the Coronado Entrada,” a book that bids to replace Herbert Bolton’s volume as the best general account of the expedition.
• NEW BOOK FROM TONY HORWITZ In 2008, also, Pulitzer-prize winning journalist/writer Tony Horwitz dealt with the Coronado expedition as a major section of his book “A Voyage Long and Strange,” which is an account of the explorations in North America before the 1700s, adjusting and correcting some of the mythic tales that most American children learn about the initial European explorations of our continent.

PHOTOS OF THE RED HOUSE OR THE CHICHILTICALE SITE ON THE WESTERN FLANKS OF THE CHIRICAHUA RANGE IN SOUTHERN ARIZONA


Picked up by a local rancher In the 1960s and Little known for years, the Floydada gauntlet and some newly-found associated artifacts, such as odd-shaped metal arrow points, have recently been recognized as priceless relics of the Coronado army expedition.

THE JIMMY OWENS SITE IS LOCATED NEAR FLOYDADA ON THE TEXAS PANHANDLE SEE PICTURES OF COLONIAL SPANISH ARTIFACTS, SPURS, MESH GLOVE…

KIVA The Coronado Expedition to Tierra Nueva: The 1540–1542 Route across the Southwest by Richard Flint; Shirley Cushing Flint

The Route of Cabeza de Vaca Author(s):James Newton Baskett The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association
The Hopi Mesa have long offered protection from raiders and nosy outsiders. Today HOPI wants to guard against any further erosion of their culture.

HOPI WOMEN have been making the ceremonial PIKI Bread for centuries in a special cooking space behind the main house

HOPI WOMEN have been making the ceremonial PIKI Bread for centuries in a special cooking space behind the main house

HOPI WEAVER displays 300 year old Sukua

AFTERMATH of DE NIZA’S JOURNEY TO CIBOLA

Cultures, old as time, were attacked as pagan by the Catholic priests who accompanied the Conquistadors and who blessed their cruel attacks, in the name of saving pagan souls. The vanquished Indian was used as slaves, sold, slain or simply worked to death. The Cross, the symbol the Spanish brought the Indian and who adopted it, as pagans you can always use another God. Finally, the Spanish opened the West, the Conquistadors began the mapping of the West which became the United States of America’s quest for it’s “manifest destiny”. The American Indian, time and time again found himself in the way of the white man’s greed, the white men attacked the first Americans stealing their lands, their game and their lives, their homes, eventually they stole their children!

The facts show the journey of FRAY MARCUS de NIZA, a man of God, began an “era of extermination”, a period when approximately 20 million Indians inhabited this territory before the Conquest, and after just one century of Spanish rule there were only 1 million left! Many vanquished by Old World diseases brought to the New World with Europeans. The epidemics that broke out as well as the merciless workload imposed on the Indian dramatically diminished the Indian population. The scope of the epidemics over the years was tremendous, killing millions of people—in excess of 90% of the population in the hardest hit areas—and creating one of “the greatest human catastrophe in history, the most devastating disease was smallpox, but other deadly diseases included typhus, measles, influenza, bubonic plague, cholera, malaria, tuberculosis, mumps, yellow fever, and pertussis (whooping cough). The Americas also had a number of local diseases, such as tuberculosis and a type of syphilis, which soon went viral when taken back to the Old World.

“The moving multitude…darkened the whole plains,” wrote Lewis and Clark, who encountered a buffalo herd at South Dakota’s White River in 1806. With westward expansion of the American frontier, systematic reduction of the plains herds had began around 1830, when buffalo hunting became the chief industry of the plains, organized hunters killed buffalo for hides and meat, often killing 250 a day.

The White Man also almost exterminated the American Buffalo, herds said to be 20 miles wide and 20 miles deep, roaming the valleys they have always grazed, only a few small herds survive today. At that time, some white men sought to eradicate the buffalo to take away the Indian’s livelihood and well-being. Native American tribes depended on the buffalo’s meat and hides, and many still today believe the animal has special spiritual and healing powers, making it an important part of their culture. The railroads laying track across the plains further depleted the buffalo, as well as the Indian’s hunting grounds because hunting from train windows was widely advertised and passengers shot buffalo as they raced beside the trains. By 1883 both the northern and the southern herds had been destroyed. Less than 300 wild animals remained in the U.S. and Canada by the turn of the century out of the 30 to 75 million that was once thought to live there.

The Navajo “Long Walk” was the 1864 forced-deportation and some say attempted ethnic cleansing of the Navajo by the U.S. Government notes Wikipedia. The Navajos were forced to walk at gunpoint from their Arizona reservation to eastern New Mexico. Some 53 different forced marches occurred between August 1864 and the end of 1866. The “Trail of Tears” is a name given to the forced relocation and movement of Native American nations from southeastern parts of the United States Many of re-settled Indians suffered from exposure, disease and starvation on the way, many died, including 4,000 of the 15,000 relocated Cherokee. By 1837, 46,000 Native Americans from southeastern states had been removed from their homelands opening 25 million acres for predominantly white settlement.


SOUTHWESTPHOTOBANK’S PREHISTORY PHOTO GALLERIES CLICK HERE….

CONQUISTADOR ARMOUR BY ERIC THING

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